Articles
SELECTIVE recent BIBLIOGRAPHY (1)
(see also the critic texts in extenso from the press of the time)

Baron George Löwendal, the Scenographer


Published works:

“George Löwendal, an Aristocrat in the Limelight”, coord. Ariadna Avram, introduction by George Banu, Editura Institutului Cultural Roman, 2011


ALTERESCU, Simion (coord.), Istoria teatrului în România (History of Theatre in Romania), vol. III (1919–1944), The Institute for the History of Art, Editura Academică a R.S.R., Bucharest, 1973

BERCOVICI, Israil, O sută de ani de teatru evreiesc în România (One hundred Years of Jewish Theatre in Romania), second edition, revised and improved by Constantin Măciucă, Editura Integral, Bucharest, 1998

BERLOGEA, Ileana, Teatrul românesc în secolul XX (Romanian Theatre in the 20th Century), Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române, Bucharest, 2000

BRANDEIß, Josef, Temeschburg – Temeswar. Eine südosteuropäische Stadt im Zeitwandel, Ed. de Heimatortsgemeinschaft Temeschburg – Temeswar, Karlsruhe: Offsetdruck Bürker, 1994

CARACAŞ, Cătălin, and SĂNDULESCU, Vivia, Consemnări coregrafice. Baletul Operei Naţionale București (Choregraphic Notes. The Ballet of the Bucharest National Opera), Edizioni Dell’Arco, 2010

CRISTEA, Ştefan, Victor Ion Popa. Viaţa şi descrierea operei; contribuţii documentare (Victor Ion Popa. His life and the description of his work; documentary contributions), Editura Minerva, Bucharest, 1973

CUCU, Silvia, George Mihail Zamfirescu şi teatrul (George Mihail Zamfirescu and Theatre), Editura Meridiane, Bucharest, 1967

FIRESCU, Alexandru, and GHEORGHIU, Constantin, Istoria Teatrului Naţional din Craiova (1850–2000) (History of the National Theatre of Craiova, 1850-2000), Editura AIUS, Craiova, 2000

FLOREA, Anca, Opera Română, Al treilea deceniu. 1941–1951 (Romanian Opera, the Third Decade. 1941–1951), Editura Info-Team, București, 2003

GÂTZĂ, Letiţia, and CHIMET, Iordan; SILVESTRU, Valentin, Teatrul de păpuşi în România (Puppet Theatre in Romania), Editura Meridiane, Bucharest, 1968

MASSOFF Ioan, Teatrul românesc. Privire istorică (Romanian Theatre. Historic Outlook), volumes IV (1972), V (1974), VI (1976), VII (1978), VIII (1981), Editura Minerva, Bucharest

NAN, C. Bogdan, Die Geschichte des Deutschen Staatstheaters Temeswar in Wort und Bild / Istoria Teatrului German de Stat Timișoara în cuvinte și imagini (ediţie bilingvă germană – română), Editura Mirton, Timişoara, 2011

PEPINO, Cristian (coord.), Dicţionarul teatrului de păpuşi, marionete şi animaţie din România (Dictionary of Puppet, Marionette and Animation Theatre in Romania), edition by Mircea Ghiţulescu, Editura Ghepardul – Festivalul Gulliver, Galaţi 1999

PETRESCU, Camil, Însemnări teatrale vol. I (1913–1927) (Theatre Notes, volume I), edited, annotated and prefaced by Florica Ichim, Fundaţia Culturală “Camil Petrescu” – revista “Teatrul azi”, Bucharest, 2005

RUNCAN, Miruna, Teatralizarea şi reteatralizarea în România (1920–1960) (Theatricalisation and re-theatricalisation in Romania), Biblioteca Teatrului Imposibil, Editura Eikon, Cluj-Napoca, 2003

VASILIU, Mihai, Istoria teatrului românesc (History of Romanian Theatre), Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucharest, 1995

POPA, Victor Ion, Scrieri despre teatru (Writings about Theatre), edition by V. Mândra and Sorin Popa, with an introductive study, notes and comments by V. Mândra, Editura Meridiane, Bucharest, 1969

POPA, Victor Ion, Mic îndreptar de teatru (Small Handbook for the Theatre), edited, annotated, commented, and with an afterword by Virgil Petrovici, Editura Eminescu, Bucharest, 1977
VESELY, Jindrich, Vynikající loutkova divadla celého světa / The Main Puppet Theatres of the World (published in Czech, French, German, Romanian and English), vol. VI (Rumunske loutkarstvi / Romanian Puppet Theatre), Tiskárna Loutkáře, Prague, 1931
ZAMFIRESCU, George Mihail, Teatru (Theatre; vol. I) and Mărturii în contemporaneitate (Witnessing my Contemporaries; vol. II), edited, introduced, annotated, commented and with bibliography by Valeriu Râpeanu, Editura Minerva, Bucharest, 1974

ZAMFIRESCU, George Mihail, Corespondenţă (Correspondence), edition, foreword, notes and index by Claudia Dimiu, Editura Minerva, Bucharest, 1988

Periodicals:

BATALI Luminita, "Le modernisme dans la scénographie roumaine ", LIGEIA, no. 105-106-107-108, January- June 2011, Paris, France

BATALI Luminita, “Restitutions – Romanian Scene Designers – George, Baron Lowendal” Observator Cultural , No. 274, 8th of July, 2010

GHENEA, C. C., “Din trecutul teatrului nostru de păpuşi” (From the Past Days of our Puppet Theatre), în Teatrul, no. 5 (May) 1958

DUCEA, Valeria, “Necunoscutul act de naştere al lui Ţăndărică” (The Unknown Birth Certificate of Ţăndărică Theatre), in Teatrul, no. 9 (September) 1968

CAZABAN, Ion, “Scenografi ai teatrului românesc interbelic (II); G. Löwendal (1897–1964)” (Scenographers of Romanian Interwar Theatre II), in Studii şi cercetări de istoria artei. Seria teatru, muzică, cinematografie, tome 41, 1994

CAZABAN, Ion, “Preocupări expresioniste în creaţia actorului român interbelic” (Expressionist Searches in the Creation of Romanian Interwar Actors) and “Teatrul românesc şi expresionismul” (Romanian Theatre and Expressionism), chronology, in Expresionismul în teatru şi în arte (Expressionism in Theatre and the Arts), supplement edited by Marian Popescu for Semnal teatral, nos. 1–4 (11–14), 1997 and 1–2 (15–16), 1998.




PhD Thesis:

MOLEA, Vera, Un regizor uitat: Aurel Ion Maican (A Forgotten Theatre Director: Aurel Ion Maican) doctoral thesis, 2007, “I.L. Caragiale” National University of Theatre and Cinematographic Arts, Bucharest,.


Baron George Löwendal, the painter

AVRAM, Ariadna Ruxandra (ed.), Georg Löwendal: Bukowina und der rumänische Bauer / Pictorul Bucovinei şi al ţăranului român, Bucharest, Cavallioti publishing house, 2007
LØVENDAL PAPAE, Baroness Lydia; PAPAE, Radu Mihai, Prof. Arch. (advisers), George baron Løvendal (1897–1964), Alcor Edimpex SRL, Bucharest, 2000
POTOPIN Ion, Gheorghe Løvendal, Editura Meridiane, Bucharest, 1987
*** The catalogue of the Autumn Salon of the Artists of Bucovina, 18 October–11 November 1931

Baron George Löwendal, the diarist

“Groparul” (The Grave-digger), in Septentrion, year V, no. 14–15, 1997
“Potcovarul Suceviţei” (The Blacksmith of Suceviţa), in Septentrion, year V, no. 14–15, 1997
“Contemporanul lui Vodă Ştefan” (A Contemporary of Prince Stephen), in Limba şi literatura română, year XXVI, January-March 1997
“Paznicul datinei” (The Keeper of Tradition), in Flacăra, 29 March 1958
“Ghinărariu” (The Gen’ral), in Flacăra, 29 March 1958

The titles of the shows illustrated in the Scenography section;
the source of the connected quotations from the press of the time


Vaudeville shows (p. 62): Stix, “Hai la Teatrul Carol cel Mare” (Come on at the Carol the Great Theatre), in Rampa, 26 September 1923.
Singer of his Sorrow by Osip Dymov (pp. 69 –71): Bercovici 1998, p.128; Massoff 1974, pp. 455–456; L.B.W., in Renaşterea, year I, no.18, 18 January 1925; Emil D. Fagure, in Lupta, year IV, no. 948, 6 February 1925.

The Marriage by N.V. Gogol (pp. 72–76): Ion Călugăru, “Căsătoria – arlequinadă tragică de N. Gogol” (The Marriage, a Tragic Harlequinade by N. Gogol) in Veac nou, 29 June 1946; Jacob Sternberg, in Rampa, 8 November 1925; Emil D. Fagure, in Lupta, 22 November 1925.

Crime and Punishment after F.M. Dostoyevsky (p. 90): Dr. Vasile Gherasim, “La sfârșitul unei stagiuni (Teatrul Naţional din Cernăuţi)” (At the end of a season; The National Theatre of Cernăuţi), in Poporul, 24 April 1927.

The Blizzard by Barbu Ștefănescu Delavrancea (pp. 108–112): George Löwendal and Aurel Ion Maican, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 1, 29 October 1927; Al. Varvara, “Deschiderea stagiunii Teatrului Naţional din Cernăuţi” (The Opening of the Season at the National Theatre of Cernăuţi), in Rampa, no. 2932, 2 November 1927.
The Miser by Molière (p. 113): George Löwendal and Aurel Ion Maican, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 3, 10 November 1927.

Uncle Vanya by A.P. Chekhov (pp. 115–117): George Löwendal and Victor Ion Popa, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 4, November 1927.

R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robot) by Karel Čapek (pp. 118–128): George Löwendal and Aurel Ion Maican, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 6, December 1927; Al. Varvara, Rampa, no. 2971, 17 December 1927; “Theater und Kunst. Nationaltheater. R.U.R. utopistisches Drama in drei akten und einem Voprspiel von Carl Czapek”, in Czernowizer Allgemeine Zeitung, no. 6835, 4 December 1927; Cara (Ernst Carabat), “Theater und Kunst. K. Czapek: R.U.R.”, in Czernowitzer Morgenblatt, 9 December 1927.
Pygmalion by G.B. Shaw (p. 132): George Löwendal, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 2, 3 November 1927.
Hawking by Georg Kaiser (pp. 134–135): George Löwendal, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 12, 20 January 1928; George Löwendal, in Caietele Teatrului Naţional “I. L. Caragiale” , no. 72, 1 May 1986.

The Lower Depths by Maxim Gorky (p. 142): Victor Ion Popa, in Spectatorul, year I, no. 17, 3 March 1928.

The Winter’s Tale by William Shakespeare (p. 152): Popa 1969, pp. 228–229.

Taras Bulba after N.V. Gogol (p. 154): George Löwendal, in Spectatorul, year II, no. 19, 1929.

Henry the Fourth by Luigi Pirandello (p. 156): Popa 1969, pp. 218–222.

The Man with the Old Rip by George Ciprian (p. 157): Popa, 1969, pp. 223–224; Al. Varvara, in Rampa, no. 3328, 25 February 1929.

Volpone by Stefan Zweig, after Ben Jonson (p. 158): Massoff 1976, p. 248; Popa 1969 pp. 213–214.

Prince Vlaicu by Alexandru Davila (p. 164): George Mihail Zamfirescu and George Löwendal, in Spectatorul, year III, no. 7, 1929.

Land of Smiles by Franz Lehár (p. 208): “Un gânditor in lumea formelor și culorilor: pictorul Löwendal” (A thinker in the world of shapes and colours: the painter Löwendal), in Glasul Bucovinei, year XVIII, no. 4468, 1 January 1935; Dimineața, 23 December 1934.

Photographic credits
Bucharest Museum (p. 60, p. 214)
Bogdan C. Nan, 2011 & Josef Brandeiß, 1994 (p. 206)

TEXTS ABOUT THE PLAYS

The Singer of His Sorrow/ Yoshke muzikant by Osip Dymov, directed by Sternberg and Iosif Bulov


Iacob Sternberg took out a lot of the play’s melodrama and replaced it with delicate lyricism and good quality humour. The play was staged as a fairytale, the entire action taking place in the kitchen. Countless eyes stared at you from the walls. The crockery was painted, and the characters were not dressed in clothes, but in theatre costumes and masks specific to each one of them. [...]
The actors’ style was partly grave and partly entertainingly funny, and this switch from the one to the other brought to the troupe’s act something that was missing: movement and colour. The entire style of acting was a complete novelty for Bucharest, pleasant and easy to assimilate, and the audience had a good time.
[...] Alongside Iacob Sternberg, the painters Rubin and Löwendal made a great contribution to this triumph.

Israil Bercovici, O sută de ani de teatru evreiesc în România (One Hundred Years of Jewish Theatre in Romania), Integral publishing house, 1998


The show generated great interest, and not only from Yiddish-speakers. [...] Several details of the elements used by the director and the scenographer (Löwendal) suggest the style and frame in which Osip Dymov’s work was presented: an Expressionist decor with effects of yellow and black; large, exaggerated lines, drowned in colour; characters painted in the same style. Thus, the eyes of the heroine were chamomile flowers with black petals; the hero of the play had eyes like fish scales; one character had a striped face, like zebra skin; the woman selling birds since forever, had a hen’s head; other silent characters came and went like ghosts; every now and then the actors moved mechanically; and the bird seller mimed the movements of a chicken.

Ioan Massoff, Teatrul românesc. Privire istorică (Romanian Theatre. Historic Outlook), vol. V, Minerva publishing house, 1974
 
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